Client

asyncio

Opening a connection

await websockets.client.connect(uri, *, create_protocol=None, logger=None, compression='deflate', origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, open_timeout=10, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, **kwds)[source]

Connect to the WebSocket server at uri.

Awaiting connect() yields a WebSocketClientProtocol which can then be used to send and receive messages.

connect() can be used as a asynchronous context manager:

async with websockets.connect(...) as websocket:
    ...

The connection is closed automatically when exiting the context.

connect() can be used as an infinite asynchronous iterator to reconnect automatically on errors:

async for websocket in websockets.connect(...):
    try:
        ...
    except websockets.ConnectionClosed:
        continue

The connection is closed automatically after each iteration of the loop.

If an error occurs while establishing the connection, connect() retries with exponential backoff. The backoff delay starts at three seconds and increases up to one minute.

If an error occurs in the body of the loop, you can handle the exception and connect() will reconnect with the next iteration; or you can let the exception bubble up and break out of the loop. This lets you decide which errors trigger a reconnection and which errors are fatal.

Parameters
  • uri (str) – URI of the WebSocket server.

  • create_protocol (Optional[Callable[[Any], WebSocketClientProtocol]]) – factory for the asyncio.Protocol managing the connection; defaults to WebSocketClientProtocol; may be set to a wrapper or a subclass to customize connection handling.

  • logger (Optional[LoggerLike]) – logger for this connection; defaults to logging.getLogger("websockets.client"); see the logging guide for details.

  • compression (Optional[str]) – shortcut that enables the “permessage-deflate” extension by default; may be set to None to disable compression; see the compression guide for details.

  • origin (Optional[Origin]) – value of the Origin header. This is useful when connecting to a server that validates the Origin header to defend against Cross-Site WebSocket Hijacking attacks.

  • extensions (Optional[Sequence[ClientExtensionFactory]]) – list of supported extensions, in order in which they should be tried.

  • subprotocols (Optional[Sequence[Subprotocol]]) – list of supported subprotocols, in order of decreasing preference.

  • extra_headers (Optional[HeadersLike]) – arbitrary HTTP headers to add to the request.

  • open_timeout (Optional[float]) – timeout for opening the connection in seconds; None to disable the timeout

See WebSocketCommonProtocol for the documentation of ping_interval, ping_timeout, close_timeout, max_size, max_queue, read_limit, and write_limit.

Any other keyword arguments are passed the event loop’s create_connection() method.

For example:

  • You can set ssl to a SSLContext to enforce TLS settings. When connecting to a wss:// URI, if ssl isn’t provided, a TLS context is created with create_default_context().

  • You can set host and port to connect to a different host and port from those found in uri. This only changes the destination of the TCP connection. The host name from uri is still used in the TLS handshake for secure connections and in the Host header.

Returns

WebSocket connection.

Return type

WebSocketClientProtocol

Raises
await websockets.client.unix_connect(path, uri='ws://localhost/', *, create_protocol=None, logger=None, compression='deflate', origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, open_timeout=10, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, **kwds)[source]

Similar to connect(), but for connecting to a Unix socket.

This function builds upon the event loop’s create_unix_connection() method.

It is only available on Unix.

It’s mainly useful for debugging servers listening on Unix sockets.

Parameters
  • path (Optional[str]) – file system path to the Unix socket.

  • uri (str) – URI of the WebSocket server; the host is used in the TLS handshake for secure connections and in the Host header.

Using a connection

class websockets.client.WebSocketClientProtocol(*, logger=None, origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16)[source]

WebSocket client connection.

WebSocketClientProtocol provides recv() and send() coroutines for receiving and sending messages.

It supports asynchronous iteration to receive incoming messages:

async for message in websocket:
    await process(message)

The iterator exits normally when the connection is closed with close code 1000 (OK) or 1001 (going away). It raises a ConnectionClosedError when the connection is closed with any other code.

See connect() for the documentation of logger, origin, extensions, subprotocols, and extra_headers.

See WebSocketCommonProtocol for the documentation of ping_interval, ping_timeout, close_timeout, max_size, max_queue, read_limit, and write_limit.

await recv()[source]

Receive the next message.

When the connection is closed, recv() raises ConnectionClosed. Specifically, it raises ConnectionClosedOK after a normal connection closure and ConnectionClosedError after a protocol error or a network failure. This is how you detect the end of the message stream.

Canceling recv() is safe. There’s no risk of losing the next message. The next invocation of recv() will return it.

This makes it possible to enforce a timeout by wrapping recv() in wait_for().

Returns

A string (str) for a Text frame. A bytestring (bytes) for a Binary frame.

Return type

Data

Raises
await send(message)[source]

Send a message.

A string (str) is sent as a Text frame. A bytestring or bytes-like object (bytes, bytearray, or memoryview) is sent as a Binary frame.

send() also accepts an iterable or an asynchronous iterable of strings, bytestrings, or bytes-like objects to enable fragmentation. Each item is treated as a message fragment and sent in its own frame. All items must be of the same type, or else send() will raise a TypeError and the connection will be closed.

send() rejects dict-like objects because this is often an error. (If you want to send the keys of a dict-like object as fragments, call its keys() method and pass the result to send().)

Canceling send() is discouraged. Instead, you should close the connection with close(). Indeed, there are only two situations where send() may yield control to the event loop and then get canceled; in both cases, close() has the same effect and is more clear:

  1. The write buffer is full. If you don’t want to wait until enough data is sent, your only alternative is to close the connection. close() will likely time out then abort the TCP connection.

  2. message is an asynchronous iterator that yields control. Stopping in the middle of a fragmented message will cause a protocol error and the connection will be closed.

When the connection is closed, send() raises ConnectionClosed. Specifically, it raises ConnectionClosedOK after a normal connection closure and ConnectionClosedError after a protocol error or a network failure.

Parameters

message (Union[Data, Iterable[Data], AsyncIterable[Data]) – message to send.

Raises
await close(code=1000, reason='')[source]

Perform the closing handshake.

close() waits for the other end to complete the handshake and for the TCP connection to terminate. As a consequence, there’s no need to await wait_closed() after close().

close() is idempotent: it doesn’t do anything once the connection is closed.

Wrapping close() in create_task() is safe, given that errors during connection termination aren’t particularly useful.

Canceling close() is discouraged. If it takes too long, you can set a shorter close_timeout. If you don’t want to wait, let the Python process exit, then the OS will take care of closing the TCP connection.

Parameters
  • code (int) – WebSocket close code.

  • reason (str) – WebSocket close reason.

await wait_closed()[source]

Wait until the connection is closed.

This coroutine is identical to the closed attribute, except it can be awaited.

This can make it easier to detect connection termination, regardless of its cause, in tasks that interact with the WebSocket connection.

await ping(data=None)[source]

Send a Ping.

A ping may serve as a keepalive or as a check that the remote endpoint received all messages up to this point

Canceling ping() is discouraged. If ping() doesn’t return immediately, it means the write buffer is full. If you don’t want to wait, you should close the connection.

Canceling the Future returned by ping() has no effect.

Parameters

data (Optional[Data]) – payload of the ping; a string will be encoded to UTF-8; or None to generate a payload containing four random bytes.

Returns

A future that will be completed when the corresponding pong is received. You can ignore it if you don’t intend to wait.

pong_waiter = await ws.ping()
await pong_waiter  # only if you want to wait for the pong

Return type

Future

Raises
  • ConnectionClosed – when the connection is closed.

  • RuntimeError – if another ping was sent with the same data and the corresponding pong wasn’t received yet.

await pong(data=b'')[source]

Send a Pong.

An unsolicited pong may serve as a unidirectional heartbeat.

Canceling pong() is discouraged. If pong() doesn’t return immediately, it means the write buffer is full. If you don’t want to wait, you should close the connection.

Parameters

data (Data) – payload of the pong; a string will be encoded to UTF-8.

Raises

ConnectionClosed – when the connection is closed.

WebSocket connection objects also provide these attributes:

id: uuid.UUID

Unique identifier of the connection. Useful in logs.

logger: LoggerLike

Logger for this connection.

property local_address: Any

Local address of the connection.

For IPv4 connections, this is a (host, port) tuple.

The format of the address depends on the address family; see getsockname().

None if the TCP connection isn’t established yet.

property remote_address: Any

Remote address of the connection.

For IPv4 connections, this is a (host, port) tuple.

The format of the address depends on the address family; see getpeername().

None if the TCP connection isn’t established yet.

property open: bool

True when the connection is open; False otherwise.

This attribute may be used to detect disconnections. However, this approach is discouraged per the EAFP principle. Instead, you should handle ConnectionClosed exceptions.

property closed: bool

True when the connection is closed; False otherwise.

Be aware that both open and closed are False during the opening and closing sequences.

The following attributes are available after the opening handshake, once the WebSocket connection is open:

path: str

Path of the opening handshake request.

request_headers: Headers

Opening handshake request headers.

response_headers: Headers

Opening handshake response headers.

subprotocol: Optional[Subprotocol]

Subprotocol, if one was negotiated.

The following attributes are available after the closing handshake, once the WebSocket connection is closed:

property close_code: Optional[int]

WebSocket close code, defined in section 7.1.5 of RFC 6455.

None if the connection isn’t closed yet.

property close_reason: Optional[str]

WebSocket close reason, defined in section 7.1.6 of RFC 6455.

None if the connection isn’t closed yet.

Sans-I/O

class websockets.client.ClientConnection(wsuri, origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, state=State.CONNECTING, max_size=2 ** 20, logger=None)[source]

Sans-I/O implementation of a WebSocket client connection.

Parameters
  • wsuri (WebSocketURI) – URI of the WebSocket server, parsed with parse_uri().

  • origin (Optional[Origin]) – value of the Origin header. This is useful when connecting to a server that validates the Origin header to defend against Cross-Site WebSocket Hijacking attacks.

  • extensions (Optional[Sequence[ClientExtensionFactory]]) – list of supported extensions, in order in which they should be tried.

  • subprotocols (Optional[Sequence[Subprotocol]]) – list of supported subprotocols, in order of decreasing preference.

  • state (State) – initial state of the WebSocket connection.

  • max_size (Optional[int]) – maximum size of incoming messages in bytes; None to disable the limit.

  • logger (Optional[LoggerLike]) – logger for this connection; defaults to logging.getLogger("websockets.client"); see the logging guide for details.

receive_data(data)[source]

Receive data from the network.

After calling this method:

Raises

EOFError – if receive_eof() was called earlier.

receive_eof()[source]

Receive the end of the data stream from the network.

After calling this method:

Raises

EOFError – if receive_eof() was called earlier.

connect()[source]

Create a handshake request to open a connection.

You must send the handshake request with send_request().

You can modify it before sending it, for example to add HTTP headers.

Returns

WebSocket handshake request event to send to the server.

Return type

Request

send_request(request)[source]

Send a handshake request to the server.

Parameters

request (websockets.http11.Request) – WebSocket handshake request event.

send_continuation(data, fin)[source]

Send a Continuation frame.

Parameters
  • data (bytes) – payload containing the same kind of data as the initial frame.

  • fin (bool) – FIN bit; set it to True if this is the last frame of a fragmented message and to False otherwise.

Raises

ProtocolError – if a fragmented message isn’t in progress.

send_text(data, fin=True)[source]

Send a Text frame.

Parameters
  • data (bytes) – payload containing text encoded with UTF-8.

  • fin (bool) – FIN bit; set it to False if this is the first frame of a fragmented message.

Raises

ProtocolError – if a fragmented message is in progress.

send_binary(data, fin=True)[source]

Send a Binary frame.

Parameters
  • data (bytes) – payload containing arbitrary binary data.

  • fin (bool) – FIN bit; set it to False if this is the first frame of a fragmented message.

Raises

ProtocolError – if a fragmented message is in progress.

send_close(code=None, reason='')[source]

Send a Close frame.

Parameters
  • code (Optional[int]) – close code.

  • reason (str) – close reason.

Raises

ProtocolError – if a fragmented message is being sent, if the code isn’t valid, or if a reason is provided without a code

send_ping(data)[source]

Send a Ping frame.

Parameters

data (bytes) – payload containing arbitrary binary data.

send_pong(data)[source]

Send a Pong frame.

Parameters

data (bytes) – payload containing arbitrary binary data.

fail(code, reason='')[source]

Fail the WebSocket connection.

Parameters
  • code (int) – close code

  • reason (str) – close reason

Raises

ProtocolError – if the code isn’t valid.

events_received()[source]

Fetch events generated from data received from the network.

Call this method immediately after any of the receive_*() methods.

Process resulting events, likely by passing them to the application.

Returns

Events read from the connection.

Return type

List[Event]

data_to_send()[source]

Obtain data to send to the network.

Call this method immediately after any of the receive_*(), send_*(), or fail() methods.

Write resulting data to the connection.

The empty bytestring SEND_EOF signals the end of the data stream. When you receive it, half-close the TCP connection.

Returns

Data to write to the connection.

Return type

List[bytes]

close_expected()[source]

Tell if the TCP connection is expected to close soon.

Call this method immediately after any of the receive_*() or fail() methods.

If it returns True, schedule closing the TCP connection after a short timeout if the other side hasn’t already closed it.

Returns

Whether the TCP connection is expected to close soon.

Return type

bool

id: uuid.UUID

Unique identifier of the connection. Useful in logs.

logger: LoggerLike

Logger for this connection.

property state: websockets.connection.State

WebSocket connection state.

Defined in 4.1, 4.2, 7.1.3, and 7.1.4 of RFC 6455.

property close_code: Optional[int]

WebSocket close code.

None if the connection isn’t closed yet.

property close_reason: Optional[str]

WebSocket close reason.

None if the connection isn’t closed yet.

property close_exc: websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed

Exception to raise when trying to interact with a closed connection.

Don’t raise this exception while the connection state is CLOSING; wait until it’s CLOSED.

Indeed, the exception includes the close code and reason, which are known only once the connection is closed.

Raises

AssertionError – if the connection isn’t closed yet.