API

Design

websockets provides complete client and server implementations, as shown in the getting started guide. These functions are built on top of low-level APIs reflecting the two phases of the WebSocket protocol:

  1. An opening handshake, in the form of an HTTP Upgrade request;
  2. Data transfer, as framed messages, ending with a closing handshake.

The first phase is designed to integrate with existing HTTP software. websockets provides functions to build and validate the request and response headers.

The second phase is the core of the WebSocket protocol. websockets provides a standalone implementation on top of asyncio with a very simple API.

For convenience, public APIs can be imported directly from the websockets package, unless noted otherwise. Anything that isn’t listed in this document is a private API.

High-level

Server

The websockets.server module defines a simple WebSocket server API.

websockets.server.serve(ws_handler, host=None, port=None, *, create_protocol=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None, compression='deflate', origins=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, process_request=None, select_subprotocol=None, **kwds)[source]

Create, start, and return a WebSocketServer.

serve() returns an awaitable. Awaiting it yields an instance of WebSocketServer which provides close() and wait_closed() methods for terminating the server and cleaning up its resources.

On Python ≥ 3.5, serve() can also be used as an asynchronous context manager. In this case, the server is shut down when exiting the context.

serve() is a wrapper around the event loop’s create_server() method. Internally, it creates and starts a Server object by calling create_server(). The WebSocketServer it returns keeps a reference to this object.

The ws_handler argument is the WebSocket handler. It must be a coroutine accepting two arguments: a WebSocketServerProtocol and the request URI.

The host and port arguments, as well as unrecognized keyword arguments, are passed along to create_server(). For example, you can set the ssl keyword argument to a SSLContext to enable TLS.

The create_protocol parameter allows customizing the asyncio protocol that manages the connection. It should be a callable or class accepting the same arguments as WebSocketServerProtocol and returning a WebSocketServerProtocol instance. It defaults to WebSocketServerProtocol.

The behavior of the ping_interval, ping_timeout, close_timeout, max_size, max_queue, read_limit, and write_limit optional arguments is described in the documentation of WebSocketCommonProtocol.

serve() also accepts the following optional arguments:

  • compression is a shortcut to configure compression extensions; by default it enables the “permessage-deflate” extension; set it to None to disable compression
  • origins defines acceptable Origin HTTP headers — include None if the lack of an origin is acceptable
  • extensions is a list of supported extensions in order of decreasing preference
  • subprotocols is a list of supported subprotocols in order of decreasing preference
  • extra_headers sets additional HTTP response headers — it can be a Headers instance, a Mapping, an iterable of (name, value) pairs, or a callable taking the request path and headers in arguments and returning one of the above
  • process_request is a callable or a coroutine taking the request path and headers in argument, see process_request() for details
  • select_subprotocol is a callable taking the subprotocols offered by the client and available on the server in argument, see select_subprotocol() for details

Whenever a client connects, the server accepts the connection, creates a WebSocketServerProtocol, performs the opening handshake, and delegates to the WebSocket handler. Once the handler completes, the server performs the closing handshake and closes the connection.

When a server is closed with close(), it closes all connections with close code 1001 (going away). WebSocket handlers — which are running the coroutine passed in the ws_handler — will receive a ConnectionClosed exception on their current or next interaction with the WebSocket connection.

Since there’s no useful way to propagate exceptions triggered in handlers, they’re sent to the 'websockets.server' logger instead. Debugging is much easier if you configure logging to print them:

import logging
logger = logging.getLogger('websockets.server')
logger.setLevel(logging.ERROR)
logger.addHandler(logging.StreamHandler())
websockets.server.unix_serve(ws_handler, path, *, create_protocol=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None, compression='deflate', origins=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, process_request=None, select_subprotocol=None, **kwds)[source]

Similar to serve(), but for listening on Unix sockets.

This function calls the event loop’s create_unix_server() method.

It is only available on Unix.

It’s useful for deploying a server behind a reverse proxy such as nginx.

class websockets.server.WebSocketServer(loop)[source]

Wrapper for Server that closes connections on exit.

This class provides the return type of serve().

It mimics the interface of AbstractServer, namely its close() and wait_closed() methods, to close WebSocket connections properly on exit, in addition to closing the underlying Server.

Instances of this class store a reference to the Server object returned by create_server() rather than inherit from Server in part because create_server() doesn’t support passing a custom Server class.

close()[source]

Close the server and terminate connections with close code 1001.

This method is idempotent.

wait_closed()[source]

Wait until the server is closed and all connections are terminated.

When wait_closed() returns, all TCP connections are closed and there are no pending tasks left.

sockets

List of socket objects the server is listening to.

None if the server is closed.

class websockets.server.WebSocketServerProtocol(ws_handler, ws_server, *, host=None, port=None, secure=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None, origins=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, process_request=None, select_subprotocol=None)[source]

Complete WebSocket server implementation as an asyncio.Protocol.

This class inherits most of its methods from WebSocketCommonProtocol.

For the sake of simplicity, it doesn’t rely on a full HTTP implementation. Its support for HTTP responses is very limited.

handshake(origins=None, available_extensions=None, available_subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None)[source]

Perform the server side of the opening handshake.

If provided, origins is a list of acceptable HTTP Origin values. Include None if the lack of an origin is acceptable.

If provided, available_extensions is a list of supported extensions in the order in which they should be used.

If provided, available_subprotocols is a list of supported subprotocols in order of decreasing preference.

If provided, extra_headers sets additional HTTP response headers. It can be a Headers instance, a Mapping, an iterable of (name, value) pairs, or a callable taking the request path and headers in arguments and returning one of the above.

Raise InvalidHandshake if the handshake fails.

Return the path of the URI of the request.

process_request(path, request_headers)[source]

Intercept the HTTP request and return an HTTP response if needed.

request_headers is a Headers instance.

If this coroutine returns None, the WebSocket handshake continues. If it returns a status code, headers and a response body, that HTTP response is sent and the connection is closed.

The HTTP status must be a HTTPStatus. (HTTPStatus was added in Python 3.5. Use a compatible object on earlier versions. Look at SWITCHING_PROTOCOLS in websockets.compatibility for an example.)

HTTP headers must be a Headers instance, a Mapping, or an iterable of (name, value) pairs.

The HTTP response body must be bytes. It may be empty.

This method may be overridden to check the request headers and set a different status, for example to authenticate the request and return HTTPStatus.UNAUTHORIZED or HTTPStatus.FORBIDDEN.

It is declared as a coroutine because such authentication checks are likely to require network requests.

This coroutine may be overridden by passing a process_request argument to the WebSocketServerProtocol constructor or the serve() function.

static select_subprotocol(client_subprotocols, server_subprotocols)[source]

Pick a subprotocol among those offered by the client.

If several subprotocols are supported by the client and the server, the default implementation selects the preferred subprotocols by giving equal value to the priorities of the client and the server.

If no subprotocols are supported by the client and the server, it proceeds without a subprotocol.

This is unlikely to be the most useful implementation in practice, as many servers providing a subprotocol will require that the client uses that subprotocol. Such rules can be implemented in a subclass.

This method may be overridden by passing a select_subprotocol argument to the WebSocketServerProtocol constructor or the serve() function.

Client

The websockets.client module defines a simple WebSocket client API.

websockets.client.connect(uri, *, create_protocol=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None, compression='deflate', origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None, **kwds)[source]

Connect to the WebSocket server at the given uri.

connect() returns an awaitable. Awaiting it yields an instance of WebSocketClientProtocol which can then be used to send and receive messages.

On Python ≥ 3.5.1, connect() can be used as a asynchronous context manager. In that case, the connection is closed when exiting the context.

connect() is a wrapper around the event loop’s create_connection() method. Unknown keyword arguments are passed to create_connection().

For example, you can set the ssl keyword argument to a SSLContext to enforce some TLS settings. When connecting to a wss:// URI, if this argument isn’t provided explicitly, it’s set to True, which means Python’s default SSLContext is used.

The behavior of the ping_interval, ping_timeout, close_timeout, max_size, max_queue, read_limit, and write_limit optional arguments is described in the documentation of WebSocketCommonProtocol.

The create_protocol parameter allows customizing the asyncio protocol that manages the connection. It should be a callable or class accepting the same arguments as WebSocketClientProtocol and returning a WebSocketClientProtocol instance. It defaults to WebSocketClientProtocol.

connect() also accepts the following optional arguments:

  • compression is a shortcut to configure compression extensions; by default it enables the “permessage-deflate” extension; set it to None to disable compression
  • origin sets the Origin HTTP header
  • extensions is a list of supported extensions in order of decreasing preference
  • subprotocols is a list of supported subprotocols in order of decreasing preference
  • extra_headers sets additional HTTP request headers – it can be a Headers instance, a Mapping, or an iterable of (name, value) pairs

connect() raises InvalidURI if uri is invalid and InvalidHandshake if the opening handshake fails.

class websockets.client.WebSocketClientProtocol(*, host=None, port=None, secure=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None, origin=None, extensions=None, subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None)[source]

Complete WebSocket client implementation as an asyncio.Protocol.

This class inherits most of its methods from WebSocketCommonProtocol.

handshake(wsuri, origin=None, available_extensions=None, available_subprotocols=None, extra_headers=None)[source]

Perform the client side of the opening handshake.

If provided, origin sets the Origin HTTP header.

If provided, available_extensions is a list of supported extensions in the order in which they should be used.

If provided, available_subprotocols is a list of supported subprotocols in order of decreasing preference.

If provided, extra_headers sets additional HTTP request headers. It must be a Headers instance, a Mapping, or an iterable of (name, value) pairs.

Raise InvalidHandshake if the handshake fails.

Shared

The websockets.protocol module handles WebSocket control and data frames as specified in sections 4 to 8 of RFC 6455.

class websockets.protocol.WebSocketCommonProtocol(*, host=None, port=None, secure=None, ping_interval=20, ping_timeout=20, close_timeout=10, max_size=2 ** 20, max_queue=2 ** 5, read_limit=2 ** 16, write_limit=2 ** 16, loop=None)[source]

This class implements common parts of the WebSocket protocol.

It assumes that the WebSocket connection is established. The handshake is managed in subclasses such as WebSocketServerProtocol and WebSocketClientProtocol.

It runs a task that stores incoming data frames in a queue and deals with control frames automatically. It sends outgoing data frames and performs the closing handshake.

On Python ≥ 3.6, WebSocketCommonProtocol instances support asynchronous iteration:

async for message in websocket:
    await process(message)

The iterator yields incoming messages. It exits normally when the connection is closed with the close code 1000 (OK) or 1001 (going away). It raises a ConnectionClosed exception when the connection is closed with any other status code.

The host, port and secure parameters are simply stored as attributes for handlers that need them.

Once the connection is open, a Ping frame is sent every ping_interval seconds. This serves as a keepalive. It helps keeping the connection open, especially in the presence of proxies with short timeouts. Set ping_interval to None to disable this behavior.

If the corresponding Pong frame isn’t received within ping_timeout seconds, the connection is considered unusable and is closed with status code 1011. This ensures that the remote endpoint remains responsive. Set ping_timeout to None to disable this behavior.

The close_timeout parameter defines a maximum wait time in seconds for completing the closing handshake and terminating the TCP connection. close() completes in at most 4 * close_timeout on the server side and 5 * close_timeout on the client side.

close_timeout needs to be a parameter of the protocol because websockets usually calls close() implicitly:

  • on the server side, when the connection handler terminates,
  • on the client side, when exiting the context manager for the connection.

To apply a timeout to any other API, wrap it in wait_for().

The max_size parameter enforces the maximum size for incoming messages in bytes. The default value is 1MB. None disables the limit. If a message larger than the maximum size is received, recv() will raise ConnectionClosed and the connection will be closed with status code 1009.

The max_queue parameter sets the maximum length of the queue that holds incoming messages. The default value is 32. 0 disables the limit. Messages are added to an in-memory queue when they’re received; then recv() pops from that queue. In order to prevent excessive memory consumption when messages are received faster than they can be processed, the queue must be bounded. If the queue fills up, the protocol stops processing incoming data until recv() is called. In this situation, various receive buffers (at least in asyncio and in the OS) will fill up, then the TCP receive window will shrink, slowing down transmission to avoid packet loss.

Since Python can use up to 4 bytes of memory to represent a single character, each websocket connection may use up to 4 * max_size * max_queue bytes of memory to store incoming messages. By default, this is 128MB. You may want to lower the limits, depending on your application’s requirements.

The read_limit argument sets the high-water limit of the buffer for incoming bytes. The low-water limit is half the high-water limit. The default value is 64kB, half of asyncio’s default (based on the current implementation of StreamReader).

The write_limit argument sets the high-water limit of the buffer for outgoing bytes. The low-water limit is a quarter of the high-water limit. The default value is 64kB, equal to asyncio’s default (based on the current implementation of FlowControlMixin).

As soon as the HTTP request and response in the opening handshake are processed:

  • the request path is available in the path attribute;
  • the request and response HTTP headers are available in the request_headers and response_headers attributes, which are Headers instances.

These attributes must be treated as immutable.

If a subprotocol was negotiated, it’s available in the subprotocol attribute.

Once the connection is closed, the status code is available in the close_code attribute and the reason in close_reason.

close(code=1000, reason='')[source]

This coroutine performs the closing handshake.

It waits for the other end to complete the handshake and for the TCP connection to terminate. As a consequence, there’s no need to await wait_closed(); close() already does it.

close() is idempotent: it doesn’t do anything once the connection is closed.

It’s safe to wrap this coroutine in ensure_future() since errors during connection termination aren’t particularly useful.

code must be an int and reason a str.

wait_closed(code=1000, reason='')[source]

Wait until the connection is closed.

This is identical to closed, except it can be awaited.

This can make it easier to handle connection termination, regardless of its cause, in tasks that interact with the WebSocket connection.

recv()[source]

This coroutine receives the next message.

It returns a str for a text frame and bytes for a binary frame.

When the end of the message stream is reached, recv() raises ConnectionClosed. This can happen after a normal connection closure, a protocol error or a network failure.

Changed in version 3.0: recv() used to return None instead. Refer to the changelog for details.

Canceling recv() is safe. There’s no risk of losing the next message. The next invocation of recv() will return it. This makes it possible to enforce a timeout by wrapping recv() in wait_for().

Changed in version 7.0: Calling recv() concurrently raises RuntimeError.

send(data)[source]

This coroutine sends a message.

It sends str as a text frame and bytes as a binary frame.

It also accepts an iterable of str or bytes. Each item is treated as a message fragment and sent in its own frame. All items must be of the same type, or else send() will raise a TypeError and the connection will be closed.

It raises a TypeError for other inputs.

ping(data=None)[source]

This coroutine sends a ping.

It returns a Future which will be completed when the corresponding pong is received and which you may ignore if you don’t want to wait.

A ping may serve as a keepalive or as a check that the remote endpoint received all messages up to this point:

pong_waiter = await ws.ping()
await pong_waiter   # only if you want to wait for the pong

By default, the ping contains four random bytes. The content may be overridden with the optional data argument which must be of type str (which will be encoded to UTF-8) or bytes.

pong(data=b'')[source]

This coroutine sends a pong.

An unsolicited pong may serve as a unidirectional heartbeat.

The content may be overridden with the optional data argument which must be of type str (which will be encoded to UTF-8) or bytes.

local_address

Local address of the connection.

This is a (host, port) tuple or None if the connection hasn’t been established yet.

remote_address

Remote address of the connection.

This is a (host, port) tuple or None if the connection hasn’t been established yet.

open

This property is True when the connection is usable.

It may be used to detect disconnections but this is discouraged per the EAFP principle. When open is False, using the connection raises a ConnectionClosed exception.

closed

This property is True once the connection is closed.

Be aware that both open and :attr`closed` are False during the opening and closing sequences.

Exceptions

exception websockets.exceptions.AbortHandshake(status, headers, body=b'')[source]

Exception raised to abort a handshake and return a HTTP response.

exception websockets.exceptions.CancelHandshake[source]

Exception raised to cancel a handshake when the connection is closed.

exception websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed(code, reason)[source]

Exception raised when trying to read or write on a closed connection.

Provides the connection close code and reason in its code and reason attributes respectively.

exception websockets.exceptions.DuplicateParameter(name)[source]

Exception raised when a parameter name is repeated in an extension header.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidHandshake[source]

Exception raised when a handshake request or response is invalid.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidHeader(name, value=None)[source]

Exception raised when a HTTP header doesn’t have a valid format or value.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidHeaderFormat(name, error, string, pos)[source]

Exception raised when a Sec-WebSocket-* HTTP header cannot be parsed.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidHeaderValue(name, value=None)[source]

Exception raised when a Sec-WebSocket-* HTTP header has a wrong value.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidMessage[source]

Exception raised when the HTTP message in a handshake request is malformed.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidOrigin(origin)[source]

Exception raised when the Origin header in a request isn’t allowed.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidParameterName(name)[source]

Exception raised when a parameter name in an extension header is invalid.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidParameterValue(name, value)[source]

Exception raised when a parameter value in an extension header is invalid.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidState[source]

Exception raised when an operation is forbidden in the current state.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidStatusCode(status_code)[source]

Exception raised when a handshake response status code is invalid.

Provides the integer status code in its status_code attribute.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidUpgrade(name, value=None)[source]

Exception raised when a Upgrade or Connection header isn’t correct.

exception websockets.exceptions.InvalidURI[source]

Exception raised when an URI isn’t a valid websocket URI.

exception websockets.exceptions.NegotiationError[source]

Exception raised when negotiating an extension fails.

exception websockets.exceptions.PayloadTooBig[source]

Exception raised when a frame’s payload exceeds the maximum size.

exception websockets.exceptions.WebSocketProtocolError[source]

Internal exception raised when the remote side breaks the protocol.

Low-level

Opening handshake

The websockets.handshake module deals with the WebSocket opening handshake according to section 4 of RFC 6455.

Functions defined in this module manipulate HTTP headers. The headers argument must implement get and __setitem__ and get — a small subset of the MutableMapping abstract base class.

Headers names and values are str objects containing only ASCII characters.

Some checks cannot be performed because they depend too much on the context; instead, they’re documented below.

To accept a connection, a server must:

  • Read the request, check that the method is GET, and check the headers with check_request(),
  • Send a 101 response to the client with the headers created by build_response() if the request is valid; otherwise, send an appropriate HTTP error code.

To open a connection, a client must:

  • Send a GET request to the server with the headers created by build_request(),
  • Read the response, check that the status code is 101, and check the headers with check_response().
websockets.handshake.build_request(headers)[source]

Build a handshake request to send to the server.

Return the key which must be passed to check_response().

websockets.handshake.check_request(headers)[source]

Check a handshake request received from the client.

If the handshake is valid, this function returns the key which must be passed to build_response().

Otherwise it raises an InvalidHandshake exception and the server must return an error like 400 Bad Request.

This function doesn’t verify that the request is an HTTP/1.1 or higher GET request and doesn’t perform Host and Origin checks. These controls are usually performed earlier in the HTTP request handling code. They’re the responsibility of the caller.

websockets.handshake.build_response(headers, key)[source]

Build a handshake response to send to the client.

key comes from check_request().

websockets.handshake.check_response(headers, key)[source]

Check a handshake response received from the server.

key comes from build_request().

If the handshake is valid, this function returns None.

Otherwise it raises an InvalidHandshake exception.

This function doesn’t verify that the response is an HTTP/1.1 or higher response with a 101 status code. These controls are the responsibility of the caller.

Data transfer

The websockets.framing module implements data framing as specified in section 5 of RFC 6455.

It deals with a single frame at a time. Anything that depends on the sequence of frames is implemented in websockets.protocol.

class websockets.framing.Frame[source]

WebSocket frame.

  • fin is the FIN bit
  • rsv1 is the RSV1 bit
  • rsv2 is the RSV2 bit
  • rsv3 is the RSV3 bit
  • opcode is the opcode
  • data is the payload data

Only these fields are needed by higher level code. The MASK bit, payload length and masking-key are handled on the fly by read() and write().

check()[source]

Check that this frame contains acceptable values.

Raise WebSocketProtocolError if this frame contains incorrect values.

classmethod read(reader, *, mask, max_size=None, extensions=None)[source]

Read a WebSocket frame and return a Frame object.

reader is a coroutine taking an integer argument and reading exactly this number of bytes, unless the end of file is reached.

mask is a bool telling whether the frame should be masked i.e. whether the read happens on the server side.

If max_size is set and the payload exceeds this size in bytes, PayloadTooBig is raised.

If extensions is provided, it’s a list of classes with an decode() method that transform the frame and return a new frame. They are applied in reverse order.

This function validates the frame before returning it and raises WebSocketProtocolError if it contains incorrect values.

write(writer, *, mask, extensions=None)[source]

Write a WebSocket frame.

frame is the Frame object to write.

writer is a function accepting bytes.

mask is a bool telling whether the frame should be masked i.e. whether the write happens on the client side.

If extensions is provided, it’s a list of classes with an encode() method that transform the frame and return a new frame. They are applied in order.

This function validates the frame before sending it and raises WebSocketProtocolError if it contains incorrect values.

websockets.framing.encode_data(data)[source]

Helper that converts str or bytes to bytes.

str are encoded with UTF-8.

websockets.framing.parse_close(data)[source]

Parse the data in a close frame.

Return (code, reason) when code is an int and reason a str.

Raise WebSocketProtocolError or UnicodeDecodeError if the data is invalid.

websockets.framing.serialize_close(code, reason)[source]

Serialize the data for a close frame.

This is the reverse of parse_close().

URI parser

The websockets.uri module implements parsing of WebSocket URIs according to section 3 of RFC 6455.

websockets.uri.parse_uri(uri)[source]

This function parses and validates a WebSocket URI.

If the URI is valid, it returns a WebSocketURI.

Otherwise it raises an InvalidURI exception.

class websockets.uri.WebSocketURI

WebSocket URI.

  • secure is the secure flag
  • host is the lower-case host
  • port if the integer port, it’s always provided even if it’s the default
  • resource_name is the resource name, that is, the path and optional query
  • user_info is an (username, password) tuple when the URI contains User Information, else None.
host

Alias for field number 1

port

Alias for field number 2

resource_name

Alias for field number 3

secure

Alias for field number 0

user_info

Alias for field number 4

Utilities

The websockets.headers module provides parsers and serializers for HTTP headers used in WebSocket handshake messages.

Its functions cannot be imported from websockets. They must be imported from websockets.headers.

websockets.headers.parse_connection(string)[source]

Parse a Connection header.

Return a list of connection options.

Raise InvalidHeaderFormat on invalid inputs.

websockets.headers.parse_upgrade(string)[source]

Parse an Upgrade header.

Return a list of connection options.

Raise InvalidHeaderFormat on invalid inputs.

websockets.headers.parse_extension_list(string)[source]

Parse a Sec-WebSocket-Extensions header.

Return a value with the following format:

[
    (
        'extension name',
        [
            ('parameter name', 'parameter value'),
            ....
        ]
    ),
    ...
]

Parameter values are None when no value is provided.

Raise InvalidHeaderFormat on invalid inputs.

websockets.headers.build_extension_list(extensions)[source]

Unparse a Sec-WebSocket-Extensions header.

This is the reverse of parse_extension_list().

websockets.headers.parse_subprotocol_list(string)[source]

Parse a Sec-WebSocket-Protocol header.

Raise InvalidHeaderFormat on invalid inputs.

websockets.headers.build_subprotocol_list(protocols)[source]

Unparse a Sec-WebSocket-Protocol header.

This is the reverse of parse_subprotocol_list().

The websockets.http module provides basic HTTP parsing and serialization. It is merely adequate for WebSocket handshake messages.

Its functions cannot be imported from websockets. They must be imported from websockets.http.

class websockets.http.Headers(*args, **kwargs)[source]

Data structure for working with HTTP headers efficiently.

A list of (name, values) is inefficient for lookups.

A dict doesn’t suffice because header names are case-insensitive and multiple occurrences of headers with the same name are possible.

Headers stores HTTP headers in a hybrid data structure to provide efficient insertions and lookups while preserving the original data.

In order to account for multiple values with minimal hassle, Headers follows this logic:

  • When getting a header with headers[name]:
    • if there’s no value, KeyError is raised;
    • if there’s exactly one value, it’s returned;
    • if there’s more than one value, MultipleValuesError is raised.
  • When setting a header with headers[name] = value, the value is appended to the list of values for that header.
  • When deleting a header with del headers[name], all values for that header are removed (this is slow).

Other methods for manipulating headers are consistent with this logic.

As long as no header occurs multiple times, Headers behaves like dict, except keys are lower-cased to provide case-insensitivity.

get_all() returns a list of all values for a header and raw_items() returns an iterator of (name, values) pairs, similar to http.client.HTTPMessage().

clear()[source]

Remove all headers.

get_all(key)[source]

Return the (possibly empty) list of all values for a header.

raw_items()[source]

Return an iterator of (header name, header value).

exception websockets.http.MultipleValuesError[source]

Exception raised when Headers has more than one value for a key.

websockets.http.read_request(stream)[source]

Read an HTTP/1.1 GET request from stream.

stream is an StreamReader.

Return (path, headers) where path is a str and headers is a Headers instance.

path isn’t URL-decoded or validated in any way.

Non-ASCII characters are represented with surrogate escapes.

Raise an exception if the request isn’t well formatted.

Don’t attempt to read the request body because WebSocket handshake requests don’t have one. If the request contains a body, it may be read from stream after this coroutine returns.

websockets.http.read_response(stream)[source]

Read an HTTP/1.1 response from stream.

stream is an StreamReader.

Return (status_code, headers) where status_code is a int and headers is a Headers instance.

Non-ASCII characters are represented with surrogate escapes.

Raise an exception if the response isn’t well formatted.

Don’t attempt to read the response body, because WebSocket handshake responses don’t have one. If the response contains a body, it may be read from stream after this coroutine returns.