Source code for websockets.protocol

:mod:`websockets.protocol` handles WebSocket control and data frames.

See `sections 4 to 8 of RFC 6455`_.

.. _sections 4 to 8 of RFC 6455:


import asyncio
import codecs
import collections
import enum
import logging
import random
import struct
import warnings
from typing import (

from .exceptions import (
from .extensions.base import Extension
from .framing import *
from .handshake import *
from .http import Headers
from .typing import Data

__all__ = ["WebSocketCommonProtocol"]

logger = logging.getLogger(__name__)

# A WebSocket connection goes through the following four states, in order:

class State(enum.IntEnum):

# In order to ensure consistency, the code always checks the current value of
# WebSocketCommonProtocol.state before assigning a new value and never yields
# between the check and the assignment.

[docs]class WebSocketCommonProtocol(asyncio.StreamReaderProtocol): """ :class:`~asyncio.Protocol` subclass implementing the data transfer phase. Once the WebSocket connection is established, during the data transfer phase, the protocol is almost symmetrical between the server side and the client side. :class:`WebSocketCommonProtocol` implements logic that's shared between servers and clients.. Subclasses such as :class:`~websockets.server.WebSocketServerProtocol` and :class:`~websockets.client.WebSocketClientProtocol` implement the opening handshake, which is different between servers and clients. :class:`WebSocketCommonProtocol` performs four functions: * It runs a task that stores incoming data frames in a queue and makes them available with the :meth:`recv` coroutine. * It sends outgoing data frames with the :meth:`send` coroutine. * It deals with control frames automatically. * It performs the closing handshake. :class:`WebSocketCommonProtocol` supports asynchronous iteration:: async for message in websocket: await process(message) The iterator yields incoming messages. It exits normally when the connection is closed with the close code 1000 (OK) or 1001 (going away). It raises a :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosedError` exception when the connection is closed with any other code. Once the connection is open, a `Ping frame`_ is sent every ``ping_interval`` seconds. This serves as a keepalive. It helps keeping the connection open, especially in the presence of proxies with short timeouts on inactive connections. Set ``ping_interval`` to ``None`` to disable this behavior. .. _Ping frame: If the corresponding `Pong frame`_ isn't received within ``ping_timeout`` seconds, the connection is considered unusable and is closed with code 1011. This ensures that the remote endpoint remains responsive. Set ``ping_timeout`` to ``None`` to disable this behavior. .. _Pong frame: The ``close_timeout`` parameter defines a maximum wait time in seconds for completing the closing handshake and terminating the TCP connection. :meth:`close` completes in at most ``4 * close_timeout`` on the server side and ``5 * close_timeout`` on the client side. ``close_timeout`` needs to be a parameter of the protocol because ``websockets`` usually calls :meth:`close` implicitly: - on the server side, when the connection handler terminates, - on the client side, when exiting the context manager for the connection. To apply a timeout to any other API, wrap it in :func:`~asyncio.wait_for`. The ``max_size`` parameter enforces the maximum size for incoming messages in bytes. The default value is 1 MiB. ``None`` disables the limit. If a message larger than the maximum size is received, :meth:`recv` will raise :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosedError` and the connection will be closed with code 1009. The ``max_queue`` parameter sets the maximum length of the queue that holds incoming messages. The default value is ``32``. ``None`` disables the limit. Messages are added to an in-memory queue when they're received; then :meth:`recv` pops from that queue. In order to prevent excessive memory consumption when messages are received faster than they can be processed, the queue must be bounded. If the queue fills up, the protocol stops processing incoming data until :meth:`recv` is called. In this situation, various receive buffers (at least in ``asyncio`` and in the OS) will fill up, then the TCP receive window will shrink, slowing down transmission to avoid packet loss. Since Python can use up to 4 bytes of memory to represent a single character, each connection may use up to ``4 * max_size * max_queue`` bytes of memory to store incoming messages. By default, this is 128 MiB. You may want to lower the limits, depending on your application's requirements. The ``read_limit`` argument sets the high-water limit of the buffer for incoming bytes. The low-water limit is half the high-water limit. The default value is 64 KiB, half of asyncio's default (based on the current implementation of :class:`~asyncio.StreamReader`). The ``write_limit`` argument sets the high-water limit of the buffer for outgoing bytes. The low-water limit is a quarter of the high-water limit. The default value is 64 KiB, equal to asyncio's default (based on the current implementation of ``FlowControlMixin``). As soon as the HTTP request and response in the opening handshake are processed: * the request path is available in the :attr:`path` attribute; * the request and response HTTP headers are available in the :attr:`request_headers` and :attr:`response_headers` attributes, which are :class:`~websockets.http.Headers` instances. If a subprotocol was negotiated, it's available in the :attr:`subprotocol` attribute. Once the connection is closed, the code is available in the :attr:`close_code` attribute and the reason in :attr:`close_reason`. All these attributes must be treated as read-only. """ # There are only two differences between the client-side and server-side # behavior: masking the payload and closing the underlying TCP connection. # Set is_client = True/False and side = "client"/"server" to pick a side. is_client: bool side: str = "undefined" def __init__( self, *, ping_interval: float = 20, ping_timeout: float = 20, close_timeout: Optional[float] = None, max_size: int = 2 ** 20, max_queue: int = 2 ** 5, read_limit: int = 2 ** 16, write_limit: int = 2 ** 16, loop: Optional[asyncio.AbstractEventLoop] = None, # The following arguments are kept only for backwards compatibility. host: Optional[str] = None, port: Optional[int] = None, secure: Optional[bool] = None, legacy_recv: bool = False, timeout: Optional[float] = None, ) -> None: # Backwards compatibility: close_timeout used to be called timeout. if timeout is None: timeout = 10 else: warnings.warn("rename timeout to close_timeout", DeprecationWarning) # If both are specified, timeout is ignored. if close_timeout is None: close_timeout = timeout self.ping_interval = ping_interval self.ping_timeout = ping_timeout self.close_timeout = close_timeout self.max_size = max_size self.max_queue = max_queue self.read_limit = read_limit self.write_limit = write_limit # Store a reference to loop to avoid relying on self._loop, a private # attribute of StreamReaderProtocol, inherited from FlowControlMixin. if loop is None: loop = asyncio.get_event_loop() self.loop = loop self._host = host self._port = port self._secure = secure self.legacy_recv = legacy_recv # Configure read buffer limits. The high-water limit is defined by # ``self.read_limit``. The ``limit`` argument controls the line length # limit and half the buffer limit of :class:`~asyncio.StreamReader`. # That's why it must be set to half of ``self.read_limit``. stream_reader = asyncio.StreamReader(limit=read_limit // 2, loop=loop) super().__init__(stream_reader, self.client_connected, loop) self.reader: asyncio.StreamReader self.writer: asyncio.StreamWriter self._drain_lock = asyncio.Lock(loop=loop) # This class implements the data transfer and closing handshake, which # are shared between the client-side and the server-side. # Subclasses implement the opening handshake and, on success, execute # :meth:`connection_open` to change the state to OPEN. self.state = State.CONNECTING logger.debug("%s - state = CONNECTING", self.side) # HTTP protocol parameters. self.path: str self.request_headers: Headers self.response_headers: Headers # WebSocket protocol parameters. self.extensions: List[Extension] = [] self.subprotocol: Optional[str] = None # The close code and reason are set when receiving a close frame or # losing the TCP connection. self.close_code: int self.close_reason: str # Completed when the connection state becomes CLOSED. Translates the # :meth:`connection_lost` callback to a :class:`~asyncio.Future` # that can be awaited. (Other :class:`~asyncio.Protocol` callbacks are # translated by ``self.stream_reader``). self.connection_lost_waiter: asyncio.Future[None] = loop.create_future() # Queue of received messages. self.messages: Deque[Data] = collections.deque() self._pop_message_waiter: Optional[asyncio.Future[None]] = None self._put_message_waiter: Optional[asyncio.Future[None]] = None # Protect sending fragmented messages. self._fragmented_message_waiter: Optional[asyncio.Future[None]] = None # Mapping of ping IDs to waiters, in chronological order. self.pings: Dict[bytes, asyncio.Future[None]] = {} # Task running the data transfer. self.transfer_data_task: asyncio.Task[None] # Exception that occurred during data transfer, if any. self.transfer_data_exc: Optional[BaseException] = None # Task sending keepalive pings. self.keepalive_ping_task: asyncio.Task[None] # Task closing the TCP connection. self.close_connection_task: asyncio.Task[None] def client_connected( self, reader: asyncio.StreamReader, writer: asyncio.StreamWriter ) -> None: """ Callback when the TCP connection is established. Record references to the stream reader and the stream writer to avoid using private attributes ``_stream_reader`` and ``_stream_writer`` of :class:`~asyncio.StreamReaderProtocol`. """ self.reader = reader self.writer = writer def connection_open(self) -> None: """ Callback when the WebSocket opening handshake completes. Enter the OPEN state and start the data transfer phase. """ # 4.1. The WebSocket Connection is Established. assert self.state is State.CONNECTING self.state = State.OPEN logger.debug("%s - state = OPEN", self.side) # Start the task that receives incoming WebSocket messages. self.transfer_data_task = self.loop.create_task(self.transfer_data()) # Start the task that sends pings at regular intervals. self.keepalive_ping_task = self.loop.create_task(self.keepalive_ping()) # Start the task that eventually closes the TCP connection. self.close_connection_task = self.loop.create_task(self.close_connection()) @property def host(self) -> Optional[str]: alternative = "remote_address" if self.is_client else "local_address" warnings.warn(f"use {alternative}[0] instead of host", DeprecationWarning) return self._host @property def port(self) -> Optional[int]: alternative = "remote_address" if self.is_client else "local_address" warnings.warn(f"use {alternative}[1] instead of port", DeprecationWarning) return self._port @property def secure(self) -> Optional[bool]: warnings.warn(f"don't use secure", DeprecationWarning) return self._secure # Public API @property def local_address(self) -> Any: """ Local address of the connection. This is a ``(host, port)`` tuple or ``None`` if the connection hasn't been established yet. """ if self.writer is None: return None return self.writer.get_extra_info("sockname") @property def remote_address(self) -> Any: """ Remote address of the connection. This is a ``(host, port)`` tuple or ``None`` if the connection hasn't been established yet. """ if self.writer is None: return None return self.writer.get_extra_info("peername") @property def open(self) -> bool: """ ``True`` when the connection is usable. It may be used to detect disconnections. However, this approach is discouraged per the EAFP_ principle. When ``open`` is ``False``, using the connection raises a :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed` exception. .. _EAFP: """ return self.state is State.OPEN and not self.transfer_data_task.done() @property def closed(self) -> bool: """ ``True`` once the connection is closed. Be aware that both :attr:`open` and :attr:`closed` are ``False`` during the opening and closing sequences. """ return self.state is State.CLOSED
[docs] async def wait_closed(self) -> None: """ Wait until the connection is closed. This is identical to :attr:`closed`, except it can be awaited. This can make it easier to handle connection termination, regardless of its cause, in tasks that interact with the WebSocket connection. """ await asyncio.shield(self.connection_lost_waiter)
async def __aiter__(self) -> AsyncIterator[Data]: """ Iterate on received messages. Exit normally when the connection is closed with code 1000 or 1001. Raise an exception in other cases. """ try: while True: yield await self.recv() except ConnectionClosedOK: return
[docs] async def recv(self) -> Data: """ Receive the next message. Return a :class:`str` for a text frame and :class:`bytes` for a binary frame. When the end of the message stream is reached, :meth:`recv` raises :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed`. Specifically, it raises :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosedOK` after a normal connection closure and :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosedError` after a protocol error or a network failure. .. versionchanged:: 3.0 :meth:`recv` used to return ``None`` instead. Refer to the changelog for details. Canceling :meth:`recv` is safe. There's no risk of losing the next message. The next invocation of :meth:`recv` will return it. This makes it possible to enforce a timeout by wrapping :meth:`recv` in :func:`~asyncio.wait_for`. :raises ~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed: when the connection is closed :raises RuntimeError: if two coroutines call :meth:`recv` concurrently """ if self._pop_message_waiter is not None: raise RuntimeError( "cannot call recv while another coroutine " "is already waiting for the next message" ) # Don't await self.ensure_open() here: # - messages could be available in the queue even if the connection # is closed; # - messages could be received before the closing frame even if the # connection is closing. # Wait until there's a message in the queue (if necessary) or the # connection is closed. while len(self.messages) <= 0: pop_message_waiter: asyncio.Future[None] = self.loop.create_future() self._pop_message_waiter = pop_message_waiter try: # If asyncio.wait() is canceled, it doesn't cancel # pop_message_waiter and self.transfer_data_task. await asyncio.wait( [pop_message_waiter, self.transfer_data_task], loop=self.loop, return_when=asyncio.FIRST_COMPLETED, ) finally: self._pop_message_waiter = None # If asyncio.wait(...) exited because self.transfer_data_task # completed before receiving a new message, raise a suitable # exception (or return None if legacy_recv is enabled). if not pop_message_waiter.done(): if self.legacy_recv: return None # type: ignore else: assert self.state in [State.CLOSING, State.CLOSED] # Wait until the connection is closed to raise # ConnectionClosed with the correct code and reason. await self.ensure_open() # Pop a message from the queue. message = self.messages.popleft() # Notify transfer_data(). if self._put_message_waiter is not None: self._put_message_waiter.set_result(None) self._put_message_waiter = None return message
[docs] async def send( self, message: Union[Data, Iterable[Data], AsyncIterable[Data]] ) -> None: """ Send a message. A string (:class:`str`) is sent as a `Text frame`_. A bytestring or bytes-like object (:class:`bytes`, :class:`bytearray`, or :class:`memoryview`) is sent as a `Binary frame`_. .. _Text frame: .. _Binary frame: :meth:`send` also accepts an iterable or an asynchronous iterable of strings, bytestrings, or bytes-like objects. In that case the message is fragmented. Each item is treated as a message fragment and sent in its own frame. All items must be of the same type, or else :meth:`send` will raise a :exc:`TypeError` and the connection will be closed. Canceling :meth:`send` is discouraged. Instead, you should close the connection with :meth:`close`. Indeed, there only two situations where :meth:`send` yields control to the event loop: 1. The write buffer is full. If you don't want to wait until enough data is sent, your only alternative is to close the connection. :meth:`close` will likely time out then abort the TCP connection. 2. ``message`` is an asynchronous iterator. Stopping in the middle of a fragmented message will cause a protocol error. Closing the connection has the same effect. :raises TypeError: for unsupported inputs """ await self.ensure_open() # While sending a fragmented message, prevent sending other messages # until all fragments are sent. while self._fragmented_message_waiter is not None: await asyncio.shield(self._fragmented_message_waiter) # Unfragmented message -- this case must be handled first because # strings and bytes-like objects are iterable. if isinstance(message, (str, bytes, bytearray, memoryview)): opcode, data = prepare_data(message) await self.write_frame(True, opcode, data) # Fragmented message -- regular iterator. elif isinstance(message, Iterable): # Work around message = cast(Iterable[Data], message) iter_message = iter(message) try: message_chunk = next(iter_message) except StopIteration: return opcode, data = prepare_data(message_chunk) self._fragmented_message_waiter = asyncio.Future() try: # First fragment. await self.write_frame(False, opcode, data) # Other fragments. for message_chunk in iter_message: confirm_opcode, data = prepare_data(message_chunk) if confirm_opcode != opcode: raise TypeError("data contains inconsistent types") await self.write_frame(False, OP_CONT, data) # Final fragment. await self.write_frame(True, OP_CONT, b"") except Exception: # We're half-way through a fragmented message and we can't # complete it. This makes the connection unusable. self.fail_connection(1011) raise finally: self._fragmented_message_waiter.set_result(None) self._fragmented_message_waiter = None # Fragmented message -- asynchronous iterator elif isinstance(message, AsyncIterable): # aiter_message = aiter(message) without aiter aiter_message = type(message).__aiter__(message) try: # message_chunk = anext(aiter_message) without anext message_chunk = await type(aiter_message).__anext__(aiter_message) except StopAsyncIteration: return opcode, data = prepare_data(message_chunk) self._fragmented_message_waiter = asyncio.Future() try: # First fragment. await self.write_frame(False, opcode, data) # Other fragments. async for message_chunk in aiter_message: confirm_opcode, data = prepare_data(message_chunk) if confirm_opcode != opcode: raise TypeError("data contains inconsistent types") await self.write_frame(False, OP_CONT, data) # Final fragment. await self.write_frame(True, OP_CONT, b"") except Exception: # We're half-way through a fragmented message and we can't # complete it. This makes the connection unusable. self.fail_connection(1011) raise finally: self._fragmented_message_waiter.set_result(None) self._fragmented_message_waiter = None else: raise TypeError("data must be bytes, str, or iterable")
[docs] async def close(self, code: int = 1000, reason: str = "") -> None: """ Perform the closing handshake. :meth:`close` waits for the other end to complete the handshake and for the TCP connection to terminate. As a consequence, there's no need to await :meth:`wait_closed`; :meth:`close` already does it. :meth:`close` is idempotent: it doesn't do anything once the connection is closed. Wrapping :func:`close` in :func:`~asyncio.create_task` is safe, given that errors during connection termination aren't particularly useful. Canceling :meth:`close` is discouraged. If it takes too long, you can set a shorter ``close_timeout``. If you don't want to wait, let the Python process exit, then the OS will close the TCP connection. :param code: WebSocket close code :param reason: WebSocket close reason """ try: await asyncio.wait_for( self.write_close_frame(serialize_close(code, reason)), self.close_timeout, loop=self.loop, ) except asyncio.TimeoutError: # If the close frame cannot be sent because the send buffers # are full, the closing handshake won't complete anyway. # Fail the connection to shut down faster. self.fail_connection() # If no close frame is received within the timeout, wait_for() cancels # the data transfer task and raises TimeoutError. # If close() is called multiple times concurrently and one of these # calls hits the timeout, the data transfer task will be cancelled. # Other calls will receive a CancelledError here. try: # If close() is canceled during the wait, self.transfer_data_task # is canceled before the timeout elapses. await asyncio.wait_for( self.transfer_data_task, self.close_timeout, loop=self.loop ) except (asyncio.TimeoutError, asyncio.CancelledError): pass # Wait for the close connection task to close the TCP connection. await asyncio.shield(self.close_connection_task)
[docs] async def ping(self, data: Optional[Data] = None) -> Awaitable[None]: """ Send a ping. Return a :class:`~asyncio.Future` which will be completed when the corresponding pong is received and which you may ignore if you don't want to wait. A ping may serve as a keepalive or as a check that the remote endpoint received all messages up to this point:: pong_waiter = await await pong_waiter # only if you want to wait for the pong By default, the ping contains four random bytes. This payload may be overridden with the optional ``data`` argument which must be a string (which will be encoded to UTF-8) or a bytes-like object. Canceling :meth:`ping` is discouraged. If :meth:`ping` doesn't return immediately, it means the write buffer is full. If you don't want to wait, you should close the connection. Canceling the :class:`~asyncio.Future` returned by :meth:`ping` has no effect. """ await self.ensure_open() if data is not None: data = encode_data(data) # Protect against duplicates if a payload is explicitly set. if data in self.pings: raise ValueError("already waiting for a pong with the same data") # Generate a unique random payload otherwise. while data is None or data in self.pings: data = struct.pack("!I", random.getrandbits(32)) self.pings[data] = self.loop.create_future() await self.write_frame(True, OP_PING, data) return asyncio.shield(self.pings[data])
[docs] async def pong(self, data: Data = b"") -> None: """ Send a pong. An unsolicited pong may serve as a unidirectional heartbeat. The payload may be set with the optional ``data`` argument which must be a string (which will be encoded to UTF-8) or a bytes-like object. Canceling :meth:`pong` is discouraged for the same reason as :meth:`ping`. """ await self.ensure_open() data = encode_data(data) await self.write_frame(True, OP_PONG, data)
# Private methods - no guarantees. def connection_closed_exc(self) -> ConnectionClosed: exception: ConnectionClosed if self.close_code == 1000 or self.close_code == 1001: exception = ConnectionClosedOK(self.close_code, self.close_reason) else: exception = ConnectionClosedError(self.close_code, self.close_reason) # Chain to the exception that terminated data transfer, if any. exception.__cause__ = self.transfer_data_exc return exception async def ensure_open(self) -> None: """ Check that the WebSocket connection is open. Raise :exc:`~websockets.exceptions.ConnectionClosed` if it isn't. """ # Handle cases from most common to least common for performance. if self.state is State.OPEN: # If self.transfer_data_task exited without a closing handshake, # self.close_connection_task may be closing it, going straight # from OPEN to CLOSED. if self.transfer_data_task.done(): await asyncio.shield(self.close_connection_task) raise self.connection_closed_exc() else: return if self.state is State.CLOSED: raise self.connection_closed_exc() if self.state is State.CLOSING: # If we started the closing handshake, wait for its completion to # get the proper close code and reason. self.close_connection_task # will complete within 4 or 5 * close_timeout after close(). The # CLOSING state also occurs when failing the connection. In that # case self.close_connection_task will complete even faster. await asyncio.shield(self.close_connection_task) raise self.connection_closed_exc() # Control may only reach this point in buggy third-party subclasses. assert self.state is State.CONNECTING raise InvalidState("WebSocket connection isn't established yet") async def transfer_data(self) -> None: """ Read incoming messages and put them in a queue. This coroutine runs in a task until the closing handshake is started. """ try: while True: message = await self.read_message() # Exit the loop when receiving a close frame. if message is None: break # Wait until there's room in the queue (if necessary). if self.max_queue is not None: while len(self.messages) >= self.max_queue: self._put_message_waiter = self.loop.create_future() try: await asyncio.shield(self._put_message_waiter) finally: self._put_message_waiter = None # Put the message in the queue. self.messages.append(message) # Notify recv(). if self._pop_message_waiter is not None: self._pop_message_waiter.set_result(None) self._pop_message_waiter = None except asyncio.CancelledError as exc: self.transfer_data_exc = exc # If fail_connection() cancels this task, avoid logging the error # twice and failing the connection again. raise except ProtocolError as exc: self.transfer_data_exc = exc self.fail_connection(1002) except (ConnectionError, EOFError) as exc: # Reading data with self.reader.readexactly may raise: # - most subclasses of ConnectionError if the TCP connection # breaks, is reset, or is aborted; # - IncompleteReadError, a subclass of EOFError, if fewer # bytes are available than requested. self.transfer_data_exc = exc self.fail_connection(1006) except UnicodeDecodeError as exc: self.transfer_data_exc = exc self.fail_connection(1007) except PayloadTooBig as exc: self.transfer_data_exc = exc self.fail_connection(1009) except Exception as exc: # This shouldn't happen often because exceptions expected under # regular circumstances are handled above. If it does, consider # catching and handling more exceptions. logger.error("Error in data transfer", exc_info=True) self.transfer_data_exc = exc self.fail_connection(1011) async def read_message(self) -> Optional[Data]: """ Read a single message from the connection. Re-assemble data frames if the message is fragmented. Return ``None`` when the closing handshake is started. """ frame = await self.read_data_frame(max_size=self.max_size) # A close frame was received. if frame is None: return None if frame.opcode == OP_TEXT: text = True elif frame.opcode == OP_BINARY: text = False else: # frame.opcode == OP_CONT raise ProtocolError("unexpected opcode") # Shortcut for the common case - no fragmentation if frame.fin: return"utf-8") if text else # 5.4. Fragmentation chunks: List[Data] = [] max_size = self.max_size if text: decoder_factory = codecs.getincrementaldecoder("utf-8") # decoder = decoder_factory(errors="strict") # type: ignore if max_size is None: def append(frame: Frame) -> None: nonlocal chunks chunks.append(decoder.decode(, frame.fin)) else: def append(frame: Frame) -> None: nonlocal chunks, max_size chunks.append(decoder.decode(, frame.fin)) max_size -= len( else: if max_size is None: def append(frame: Frame) -> None: nonlocal chunks chunks.append( else: def append(frame: Frame) -> None: nonlocal chunks, max_size chunks.append( max_size -= len( append(frame) while not frame.fin: frame = await self.read_data_frame(max_size=max_size) if frame is None: raise ProtocolError("incomplete fragmented message") if frame.opcode != OP_CONT: raise ProtocolError("unexpected opcode") append(frame) # mypy cannot figure out that chunks have the proper type. return ("" if text else b"").join(chunks) # type: ignore async def read_data_frame(self, max_size: int) -> Optional[Frame]: """ Read a single data frame from the connection. Process control frames received before the next data frame. Return ``None`` if a close frame is encountered before any data frame. """ # 6.2. Receiving Data while True: frame = await self.read_frame(max_size) # 5.5. Control Frames if frame.opcode == OP_CLOSE: # 7.1.5. The WebSocket Connection Close Code # 7.1.6. The WebSocket Connection Close Reason self.close_code, self.close_reason = parse_close( try: # Echo the original data instead of re-serializing it with # serialize_close() because that fails when the close frame # is empty and parse_close() synthetizes a 1005 close code. await self.write_close_frame( except ConnectionClosed: # It doesn't really matter if the connection was closed # before we could send back a close frame. pass return None elif frame.opcode == OP_PING: # Answer pings. ping_hex = or "[empty]" logger.debug( "%s - received ping, sending pong: %s", self.side, ping_hex ) await self.pong( elif frame.opcode == OP_PONG: # Acknowledge pings on solicited pongs. if in self.pings: logger.debug( "%s - received solicited pong: %s", self.side, or "[empty]", ) # Acknowledge all pings up to the one matching this pong. ping_id = None ping_ids = [] for ping_id, ping in self.pings.items(): ping_ids.append(ping_id) if not ping.done(): ping.set_result(None) if ping_id == break else: # pragma: no cover assert False, "ping_id is in self.pings" # Remove acknowledged pings from self.pings. for ping_id in ping_ids: del self.pings[ping_id] ping_ids = ping_ids[:-1] if ping_ids: pings_hex = ", ".join( ping_id.hex() or "[empty]" for ping_id in ping_ids ) plural = "s" if len(ping_ids) > 1 else "" logger.debug( "%s - acknowledged previous ping%s: %s", self.side, plural, pings_hex, ) else: logger.debug( "%s - received unsolicited pong: %s", self.side, or "[empty]", ) # 5.6. Data Frames else: return frame async def read_frame(self, max_size: int) -> Frame: """ Read a single frame from the connection. """ frame = await self.reader.readexactly, mask=not self.is_client, max_size=max_size, extensions=self.extensions, ) logger.debug("%s < %r", self.side, frame) return frame async def write_frame( self, fin: bool, opcode: int, data: bytes, *, _expected_state: int = State.OPEN ) -> None: # Defensive assertion for protocol compliance. if self.state is not _expected_state: # pragma: no cover raise InvalidState( f"Cannot write to a WebSocket in the {} state" ) frame = Frame(fin, opcode, data) logger.debug("%s > %r", self.side, frame) frame.write(self.writer.write, mask=self.is_client, extensions=self.extensions) try: # drain() cannot be called concurrently by multiple coroutines: # Remove this lock when no # version of Python where this bugs exists is supported anymore. async with self._drain_lock: # Handle flow control automatically. await self.writer.drain() except ConnectionError: # Terminate the connection if the socket died. self.fail_connection() # Wait until the connection is closed to raise ConnectionClosed # with the correct code and reason. await self.ensure_open() async def write_close_frame(self, data: bytes = b"") -> None: """ Write a close frame if and only if the connection state is OPEN. This dedicated coroutine must be used for writing close frames to ensure that at most one close frame is sent on a given connection. """ # Test and set the connection state before sending the close frame to # avoid sending two frames in case of concurrent calls. if self.state is State.OPEN: # 7.1.3. The WebSocket Closing Handshake is Started self.state = State.CLOSING logger.debug("%s - state = CLOSING", self.side) # 7.1.2. Start the WebSocket Closing Handshake await self.write_frame(True, OP_CLOSE, data, _expected_state=State.CLOSING) async def keepalive_ping(self) -> None: """ Send a Ping frame and wait for a Pong frame at regular intervals. This coroutine exits when the connection terminates and one of the following happens: - :meth:`ping` raises :exc:`ConnectionClosed`, or - :meth:`close_connection` cancels :attr:`keepalive_ping_task`. """ if self.ping_interval is None: return try: while True: await asyncio.sleep(self.ping_interval, loop=self.loop) # ping() raises CancelledError if the connection is closed, # when close_connection() cancels self.keepalive_ping_task. # ping() raises ConnectionClosed if the connection is lost, # when connection_lost() calls abort_pings(). ping_waiter = await if self.ping_timeout is not None: try: await asyncio.wait_for( ping_waiter, self.ping_timeout, loop=self.loop ) except asyncio.TimeoutError: logger.debug("%s ! timed out waiting for pong", self.side) self.fail_connection(1011) break except asyncio.CancelledError: raise except ConnectionClosed: pass except Exception: logger.warning("Unexpected exception in keepalive ping task", exc_info=True) async def close_connection(self) -> None: """ 7.1.1. Close the WebSocket Connection When the opening handshake succeeds, :meth:`connection_open` starts this coroutine in a task. It waits for the data transfer phase to complete then it closes the TCP connection cleanly. When the opening handshake fails, :meth:`fail_connection` does the same. There's no data transfer phase in that case. """ try: # Wait for the data transfer phase to complete. if hasattr(self, "transfer_data_task"): try: await self.transfer_data_task except asyncio.CancelledError: pass # Cancel the keepalive ping task. if hasattr(self, "keepalive_ping_task"): self.keepalive_ping_task.cancel() # A client should wait for a TCP close from the server. if self.is_client and hasattr(self, "transfer_data_task"): if await self.wait_for_connection_lost(): return logger.debug("%s ! timed out waiting for TCP close", self.side) # Half-close the TCP connection if possible (when there's no TLS). if self.writer.can_write_eof(): logger.debug("%s x half-closing TCP connection", self.side) self.writer.write_eof() if await self.wait_for_connection_lost(): return logger.debug("%s ! timed out waiting for TCP close", self.side) finally: # The try/finally ensures that the transport never remains open, # even if this coroutine is canceled (for example). # If connection_lost() was called, the TCP connection is closed. # However, if TLS is enabled, the transport still needs closing. # Else asyncio complains: ResourceWarning: unclosed transport. try: writer_is_closing = self.writer.is_closing # type: ignore except AttributeError: # pragma: no cover # Python < 3.7 writer_is_closing = self.writer.transport.is_closing if self.connection_lost_waiter.done() and writer_is_closing(): return # Close the TCP connection. Buffers are flushed asynchronously. logger.debug("%s x closing TCP connection", self.side) self.writer.close() if await self.wait_for_connection_lost(): return logger.debug("%s ! timed out waiting for TCP close", self.side) # Abort the TCP connection. Buffers are discarded. logger.debug("%s x aborting TCP connection", self.side) # mypy thinks self.writer.transport is a BaseTransport, not a Transport. self.writer.transport.abort() # type: ignore # connection_lost() is called quickly after aborting. await self.wait_for_connection_lost() async def wait_for_connection_lost(self) -> bool: """ Wait until the TCP connection is closed or ``self.close_timeout`` elapses. Return ``True`` if the connection is closed and ``False`` otherwise. """ if not self.connection_lost_waiter.done(): try: await asyncio.wait_for( asyncio.shield(self.connection_lost_waiter), self.close_timeout, loop=self.loop, ) except asyncio.TimeoutError: pass # Re-check self.connection_lost_waiter.done() synchronously because # connection_lost() could run between the moment the timeout occurs # and the moment this coroutine resumes running. return self.connection_lost_waiter.done() def fail_connection(self, code: int = 1006, reason: str = "") -> None: """ 7.1.7. Fail the WebSocket Connection This requires: 1. Stopping all processing of incoming data, which means cancelling :attr:`transfer_data_task`. The close code will be 1006 unless a close frame was received earlier. 2. Sending a close frame with an appropriate code if the opening handshake succeeded and the other side is likely to process it. 3. Closing the connection. :meth:`close_connection` takes care of this once :attr:`transfer_data_task` exits after being canceled. (The specification describes these steps in the opposite order.) """ logger.debug( "%s ! failing %s WebSocket connection with code %d", self.side,, code, ) # Cancel transfer_data_task if the opening handshake succeeded. # cancel() is idempotent and ignored if the task is done already. if hasattr(self, "transfer_data_task"): self.transfer_data_task.cancel() # Send a close frame when the state is OPEN (a close frame was already # sent if it's CLOSING), except when failing the connection because of # an error reading from or writing to the network. # Don't send a close frame if the connection is broken. if code != 1006 and self.state is State.OPEN: frame_data = serialize_close(code, reason) # Write the close frame without draining the write buffer. # Keeping fail_connection() synchronous guarantees it can't # get stuck and simplifies the implementation of the callers. # Not drainig the write buffer is acceptable in this context. # This duplicates a few lines of code from write_close_frame() # and write_frame(). self.state = State.CLOSING logger.debug("%s - state = CLOSING", self.side) frame = Frame(True, OP_CLOSE, frame_data) logger.debug("%s > %r", self.side, frame) frame.write( self.writer.write, mask=self.is_client, extensions=self.extensions ) # Start close_connection_task if the opening handshake didn't succeed. if not hasattr(self, "close_connection_task"): self.close_connection_task = self.loop.create_task(self.close_connection()) def abort_pings(self) -> None: """ Raise ConnectionClosed in pending keepalive pings. They'll never receive a pong once the connection is closed. """ assert self.state is State.CLOSED exc = self.connection_closed_exc() for ping in self.pings.values(): ping.set_exception(exc) # If the exception is never retrieved, it will be logged when ping # is garbage-collected. This is confusing for users. # Given that ping is done (with an exception), canceling it does # nothing, but it prevents logging the exception. ping.cancel() if self.pings: pings_hex = ", ".join(ping_id.hex() or "[empty]" for ping_id in self.pings) plural = "s" if len(self.pings) > 1 else "" logger.debug( "%s - aborted pending ping%s: %s", self.side, plural, pings_hex ) # asyncio.StreamReaderProtocol methods def connection_made(self, transport: asyncio.BaseTransport) -> None: """ Configure write buffer limits. The high-water limit is defined by ``self.write_limit``. The low-water limit currently defaults to ``self.write_limit // 4`` in :meth:`~asyncio.WriteTransport.set_write_buffer_limits`, which should be all right for reasonable use cases of this library. This is the earliest point where we can get hold of the transport, which means it's the best point for configuring it. """ logger.debug("%s - event = connection_made(%s)", self.side, transport) # mypy thinks transport is a BaseTransport, not a Transport. transport.set_write_buffer_limits(self.write_limit) # type: ignore super().connection_made(transport) def eof_received(self) -> bool: """ Close the transport after receiving EOF. Since Python 3.5, `:meth:~StreamReaderProtocol.eof_received` returns ``True`` on non-TLS connections. See for more information. This is inappropriate for ``websockets`` for at least three reasons: 1. The use case is to read data until EOF with Since WebSocket is a TLV protocol, this never happens. 2. It doesn't work on TLS connections. A falsy value must be returned to have the same behavior on TLS and plain connections. 3. The WebSocket protocol has its own closing handshake. Endpoints close the TCP connection after sending a close frame. As a consequence we revert to the previous, more useful behavior. """ logger.debug("%s - event = eof_received()", self.side) super().eof_received() return False def connection_lost(self, exc: Optional[Exception]) -> None: """ 7.1.4. The WebSocket Connection is Closed. """ logger.debug("%s - event = connection_lost(%s)", self.side, exc) self.state = State.CLOSED logger.debug("%s - state = CLOSED", self.side) if not hasattr(self, "close_code"): self.close_code = 1006 if not hasattr(self, "close_reason"): self.close_reason = "" logger.debug( "%s x code = %d, reason = %s", self.side, self.close_code, self.close_reason or "[no reason]", ) self.abort_pings() # If self.connection_lost_waiter isn't pending, that's a bug, because: # - it's set only here in connection_lost() which is called only once; # - it must never be canceled. self.connection_lost_waiter.set_result(None) super().connection_lost(exc)